Introduction - S.Benson, N.Jaëck, and S.Durrans

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  What’s in a Child’s Voice?

Stephanie Benson, Nathalie Jaëck, and Stéphanie Durrans


 In Hard Times, Charles Dickens expounds at some length on the war against Fancy waged by educators. In the spirit of the Industrial Revolution, children were to be brought up to realism and led away from the childish realms of fancy. Sissy Jupe is an unfortunate victim of this war against “the Fairies, sir, and the Dwarf, and the Hunchback, and the Genies” (35) glimpsed in the books she once read to her father—and to her dog. They shaped her imagination and so her voice, an enchanted yet a disruptive voice. For Dickens, it was also the voice of nature, a useful weapon in the struggle against the champions of Reason and Productivity.

Sissy Jupe is as good a starting point as any to ask just what is in a child’s voice in literature. How is it different from an adult voice? What is it that makes it sound childish? What makes it so particular, and to what end does the writer use it? Do first-person and third-person narrators spark the same emotions in the reader when both are children? Are the possibilities for using a child’s voice in narrative limited? Or is there a danger of forfeiting verisimilitude (when the vocabulary or syntax is too sophisticated for a child) or depth of emotion (when the vocabulary and syntax are too simple)?

The etymology of the word “infant” (“without voice,” “he who does not speak”) posits the child narrator almost as an oxymoron, and points to the difficulty of giving voice to a character who is both chronologically and intellectually removed from the writer. Moreover, until recently the silence of the child was the product of rules for good behaviour such as “Speak only when you are spoken to” or “children should be seen and not heard.” Giving a voice to a fictional child thus undermines generations of educators—and not only in Dickens. Indeed children’s voices are a relatively recent phenomenon in literature. In fact in both society and literature the child’s very existence was barely recognised until writers such as Mark Twain or Charles Dickens drew them out of their silent obscurity. Here, again, however, we are faced with a paradox. The writer who uses a child’s voice is never himself a child, even when his intended reader is. The writer must make an effort to give voice to the child he or she once was. But can he really ever rediscover the child he or she was in order to write as one, or is he forever condemned to impersonating the child he wishes he had been? Is not the child’s voice in narrative somehow a manifestation of the writer’s hopeless search for the lost paradise of childhood?

The child narrator often strikes a jarring note in an adult world and his or her voice and gaze question the status quo. Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn, Ralph in Lord of the Flies, Oliver Twist or Jenny Wren, Alex in Anthony Burgess’s A Clockwork Orange, to name but a few, all contain something that goes against the grain of the general workings of the adult world. They question the way things are done. And the way things are said. They question the way things are thought about. They question the whole adult view of reality, which leads to another question: to whom is the child’s voice addressed? To other children that the writer supposes will identify with the child whose voice he or she has created? Or perhaps to obdurate adults whose ways of thinking it unsettles? Is the child’s voice, in other words, simply a narrative voice amongst others, or does it serve a didactic function? Is it meant to serve as an injunction to question the adult world before entering it? Is it, perhaps, the voice of a teacher in disguise? Finally, when considering the voice of the child, should we distinguish between literature aimed at adults and literature for young readers? Or are they one and the same, teaching rather than telling, no matter who the reader is?

Historically, books for children (both traditional fairy and folk tales and more recent writing) have been largely moral and didactic, aiming at giving their readers—or listeners, since they are often read to children by adults—essential guidelines to good behaviour, the dos and don’ts of any particular culture. Most theorists agree that children’s literature—that is stories written by contemporary authors for children in which the main characters are children—emerged in mid-eighteenth century England under the influence of Locke’s and Rousseau’s theories on education and the modern concepts of childhood. [1] The first century of books for children produced essentially moral and didactic works in which the child’s voice as such was still largely unheard. Two literary landmarks, both English, signal the accession of what might be called a realistic child’s voice or at least a questioning voice tinged with innocence. They are Tom Brown’s School Days by Thomas Hughes (1857) and Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865). Yet, although Tom Brown is given a voice in dialogue, it is an unnamed first-person omniscient narrator who tells us rather more than the title suggests—not all of it even concerned with Tom. Lewis Carroll’s masterpiece is thus regarded by most historians of children’s literature as the first novel to centre specifically on a child hero with a voice and narrative perspective, despite the third person narration.

Another novel by Charles Dickens, published at the same time as Carroll’s Alice, also explores the possibilities of the child’s voice in narrative. It uses the child’s voice in a completely different manner from that of Sissy Jupe in Hard Times. Our Mutual Friend (1864-1865) features a strange character who belongs to the world of adults and yet has the voice of a child, a voice that is critical of adult behaviour. Though she earns money for both herself and her father, Jenny Wren is a child. She is crippled, although at the end of the novel she hardly needs a stick at all, and she is from the first rather ambiguously introduced by the narrative voice as “a child—a dwarf—a girl—a something” (275). In the dialogue that immediately follows this description she is again referred to as a child, but her own description of herself would be better suited to an old woman: “‘I can’t get up’ said the child, ‘because my back’s bad, and my legs are queer. But I’m the person of the house’” (275). Even more striking is the manner in which Jenny refers to the adults around her. Her clients are “dolls” and her own father a “child”: “‘Well, it’s Saturday night,’ she returned, ‘and my child’s coming home. And my child is a troublesome bad child, and costs me a world of scolding. I would rather you didn’t see my child’” (278). Indeed, when her father staggers home, drunk, she makes him turn out his pockets in order to salvage what remains of his pay. In this reversal of roles and of voices, Dickens seems to depict a world in which there is no longer any room for the innocence of childhood, a world in which the child’s voice is, on the contrary, knowing and worldly, to compensate for the lack of moral integrity in adults. As the narrator writes concerning Jenny: “Poor dolls’ dressmaker! How often so dragged down by hands that should have raised her up; how often so misdirected when losing her way on the eternal road, and asking guidance. Poor, poor, little dolls’ dressmaker!” (278).

Here the child’s voice represents a sort of warped innocence, an innocence that has never been allowed to emerge, a false adulthood that is morally superior to that of the real adults. More generally, Dickens’s children have dissonant voices, and yet they act (and speak) the way ideal adults would in a world where many adults are singularly lacking in morality. They are almost more mature than the adults around them, marked with a “natural” sense of good and evil, and Dickens (particularly with the dolls’ dressmaker, but also in the short story “A Holiday Romance”), tends towards the idea that children are born just and knowing and are subsequently corrupted by education and society, rather than improved by it. The child’s voice is just, intelligent and well-meaning—a far cry from the adult’s corrupt and self-centred self-interest—and so it is a force of disruption.

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