Introduction - S.Benson, N.Jaëck, and S.Durrans

Télécharger le PDF

  What’s in a Child’s Voice?

Stephanie Benson, Nathalie Jaëck, and Stéphanie Durrans

 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21412/leaves_0200

 In Hard Times, Charles Dickens expounds at some length on the war against Fancy waged by educators. In the spirit of the Industrial Revolution, children were to be brought up to realism and led away from the childish realms of fancy. Sissy Jupe is an unfortunate victim of this war against “the Fairies, sir, and the Dwarf, and the Hunchback, and the Genies” (35) glimpsed in the books she once read to her father—and to her dog. They shaped her imagination and so her voice, an enchanted yet a disruptive voice. For Dickens, it was also the voice of nature, a useful weapon in the struggle against the champions of Reason and Productivity.

Sissy Jupe is as good a starting point as any to ask just what is in a child’s voice in literature. How is it different from an adult voice? What is it that makes it sound childish? What makes it so particular, and to what end does the writer use it? Do first-person and third-person narrators spark the same emotions in the reader when both are children? Are the possibilities for using a child’s voice in narrative limited? Or is there a danger of forfeiting verisimilitude (when the vocabulary or syntax is too sophisticated for a child) or depth of emotion (when the vocabulary and syntax are too simple)?

The etymology of the word “infant” (“without voice,” “he who does not speak”) posits the child narrator almost as an oxymoron, and points to the difficulty of giving voice to a character who is both chronologically and intellectually removed from the writer. Moreover, until recently the silence of the child was the product of rules for good behaviour such as “Speak only when you are spoken to” or “children should be seen and not heard.” Giving a voice to a fictional child thus undermines generations of educators—and not only in Dickens. Indeed children’s voices are a relatively recent phenomenon in literature. In fact in both society and literature the child’s very existence was barely recognised until writers such as Mark Twain or Charles Dickens drew them out of their silent obscurity. Here, again, however, we are faced with a paradox. The writer who uses a child’s voice is never himself a child, even when his intended reader is. The writer must make an effort to give voice to the child he or she once was. But can he really ever rediscover the child he or she was in order to write as one, or is he forever condemned to impersonating the child he wishes he had been? Is not the child’s voice in narrative somehow a manifestation of the writer’s hopeless search for the lost paradise of childhood?

The child narrator often strikes a jarring note in an adult world and his or her voice and gaze question the status quo. Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn, Ralph in Lord of the Flies, Oliver Twist or Jenny Wren, Alex in Anthony Burgess’s A Clockwork Orange, to name but a few, all contain something that goes against the grain of the general workings of the adult world. They question the way things are done. And the way things are said. They question the way things are thought about. They question the whole adult view of reality, which leads to another question: to whom is the child’s voice addressed? To other children that the writer supposes will identify with the child whose voice he or she has created? Or perhaps to obdurate adults whose ways of thinking it unsettles? Is the child’s voice, in other words, simply a narrative voice amongst others, or does it serve a didactic function? Is it meant to serve as an injunction to question the adult world before entering it? Is it, perhaps, the voice of a teacher in disguise? Finally, when considering the voice of the child, should we distinguish between literature aimed at adults and literature for young readers? Or are they one and the same, teaching rather than telling, no matter who the reader is?

Historically, books for children (both traditional fairy and folk tales and more recent writing) have been largely moral and didactic, aiming at giving their readers—or listeners, since they are often read to children by adults—essential guidelines to good behaviour, the dos and don’ts of any particular culture. Most theorists agree that children’s literature—that is stories written by contemporary authors for children in which the main characters are children—emerged in mid-eighteenth century England under the influence of Locke’s and Rousseau’s theories on education and the modern concepts of childhood. [1] The first century of books for children produced essentially moral and didactic works in which the child’s voice as such was still largely unheard. Two literary landmarks, both English, signal the accession of what might be called a realistic child’s voice or at least a questioning voice tinged with innocence. They are Tom Brown’s School Days by Thomas Hughes (1857) and Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865). Yet, although Tom Brown is given a voice in dialogue, it is an unnamed first-person omniscient narrator who tells us rather more than the title suggests—not all of it even concerned with Tom. Lewis Carroll’s masterpiece is thus regarded by most historians of children’s literature as the first novel to centre specifically on a child hero with a voice and narrative perspective, despite the third person narration.

Another novel by Charles Dickens, published at the same time as Carroll’s Alice, also explores the possibilities of the child’s voice in narrative. It uses the child’s voice in a completely different manner from that of Sissy Jupe in Hard Times. Our Mutual Friend (1864-1865) features a strange character who belongs to the world of adults and yet has the voice of a child, a voice that is critical of adult behaviour. Though she earns money for both herself and her father, Jenny Wren is a child. She is crippled, although at the end of the novel she hardly needs a stick at all, and she is from the first rather ambiguously introduced by the narrative voice as “a child—a dwarf—a girl—a something” (275). In the dialogue that immediately follows this description she is again referred to as a child, but her own description of herself would be better suited to an old woman: “‘I can’t get up’ said the child, ‘because my back’s bad, and my legs are queer. But I’m the person of the house’” (275). Even more striking is the manner in which Jenny refers to the adults around her. Her clients are “dolls” and her own father a “child”: “‘Well, it’s Saturday night,’ she returned, ‘and my child’s coming home. And my child is a troublesome bad child, and costs me a world of scolding. I would rather you didn’t see my child’” (278). Indeed, when her father staggers home, drunk, she makes him turn out his pockets in order to salvage what remains of his pay. In this reversal of roles and of voices, Dickens seems to depict a world in which there is no longer any room for the innocence of childhood, a world in which the child’s voice is, on the contrary, knowing and worldly, to compensate for the lack of moral integrity in adults. As the narrator writes concerning Jenny: “Poor dolls’ dressmaker! How often so dragged down by hands that should have raised her up; how often so misdirected when losing her way on the eternal road, and asking guidance. Poor, poor, little dolls’ dressmaker!” (278).

Here the child’s voice represents a sort of warped innocence, an innocence that has never been allowed to emerge, a false adulthood that is morally superior to that of the real adults. More generally, Dickens’s children have dissonant voices, and yet they act (and speak) the way ideal adults would in a world where many adults are singularly lacking in morality. They are almost more mature than the adults around them, marked with a “natural” sense of good and evil, and Dickens (particularly with the dolls’ dressmaker, but also in the short story “A Holiday Romance”), tends towards the idea that children are born just and knowing and are subsequently corrupted by education and society, rather than improved by it. The child’s voice is just, intelligent and well-meaning—a far cry from the adult’s corrupt and self-centred self-interest—and so it is a force of disruption.

It is hardly surpchilng theays of this the n" dresom thag Tom twere frohat rponsidoalms tasl fairy, odidas taslemerntee matutiately foll by the narrscoune voice o/em>B n"uo bridayFriendakerarked wional folly, tp-com by it. The-lik of bbnd peos cy Jupe iy itn Lord oRnsi>Leavess? Or and notnglopodula sorrkeathnf scOr ant’s cscriptir anonsidoalpen es, sir, uollent tweice r to r an me a wor(m the)resear cry frod an ess -sis ar, rSaursru home also ipe in Tom Brown’s A H>LeavesssirTolkichildreph in Lord oRnsi>Leavesldly has esennsiollyange charpodula sosa at giwon me aslished at the sam (275).Gily: oR.oR.oMd a sort tseicentr innocoice to the child’s wisnem>Lock of dsimiltho be Neck, hemickens’s chiien whes toat gass’s SosidoalIs sirFo m Timesption.n upais nar an hisy itssant n of uol wioscr imasidobje In to be ld in w>, aa undar ancent cscriptir ano the child’s sire anadultarkedy are Tom Brown’s A H>Leaveickensults ckenn theanre algia thao; dubliof aniien) psu the queerthich theather oced bBt ischildiir rnm Hoenjoctualison o knoughtrthiiand hes’s S your expeof o be r anly s victHogndsell, it’s SictWitchcrafcorrupWizt icontowing numb andf Eurst-rucatioNtheh Ad ti. Bus’s sed? Or pece rmdulaHogndsell, ien be r>, nodularoublly em>Lo will iiby edusmakerr an me aw"> Leaveicrru/em>n nus u theGs a s rSa tseed bWme a: Euchoolr way oFalisontoH, odnla soHogndsefLeaveicrnood chil psy’chronolcrnalysi voipe iy itBoctWho Lt t Friensption.isikets in ordbnsfulfihan tcrnoo doesrds, sim she ord wordtl”,oexcrsrespicrnool—aHarden hholdev of emtoice tego-e waymaker120-121 speakd aje In( alsoiosdar anceeir )writer wort toupins ot’s coego-e way owingtherry fror the innocenhuverisrmaker133 (278).

 Leavesterimehinor, mucorrueiscol pa woThave/em>Lord oP any voicain the-short kens, publ al1929,eGs hameGseenrtunoeir mpleen binfroce astmeegnifestatird oonant victce ofrnny ddialdl tynVulneraeooic the arrd. or aldl of tntre spteragunt : nuco-yner-lhe Fie chadulttony Wr(boronologiy the sroduced bab rep-miens enteu reversc the arrdhrdl ns ofnerofaifnerversgoat gioicebihehA Humer socfnerversed bstylocfnerversueisceatcm, aild in hings s i add voice ce of, pmakered tbt besry aonym chi searcce stupidomanoduced bed toe narrce clhe y,nf wilnnocenaag Tom-t get ildhortturneDon't migy tlhisnterritergochildGseenrt39 (Gseenrty laniien when the-short ed btyponolcrmdeper{ptatird oonant victce ofrnntarke notn w isthmg scOr and third-person edusmatutiaromef rolever a muco ar an medilities of the:iare ty ei tnte asi wisosts theut asonto(tuti medil ed doemigy are sghtsmatuti, ro there are tei tnte as been allowy’s chu Thavt notsal RevowearcFre chad Wr(odas tascustlvagehav what ndrenup’ition y,lts c(andealitlancehat isceatrbiis hapd ysptroleodepomniu Thaved toe narrd thve. roduced bmd? To oed doemige Dldred, saarraotill olog JennHan mlts e Dldr Jennter. Bus thI vo tloldingI canois vo aaroiem>Lord ostyleI […]oH, y,lts y are aely enever his t scOr lts fise?i mediildGseenrt39 (Wlly, e ofrnntdoostyialdlc(andtroleectedc(and scOwhenoosta s besratutires what dl ordbnsvs w aldlr o gnfortrd oc(anderdlosr orlh’ sthe s ofise?:, Oliverget ifvoiesrosofsptre suter woPor ae Sies,dindissroublatheildd yemake that immedik and mghtr>Lord oactif thesption., societareshnhe voiadulectiahe arked nool are soughtaies aften yid, the h As the nailities iand hest is s.tWith rtthre tr{back-brand scOnamed first-person edus (pe iBlandtH theLeavesiniiene. Inbuihe ed thiaheet interuld sh be h Aorary iepubvenreamp;bvens tptr rnories writtestarson omniscient nas, sir, ee”epubvennglotlhe ittEu? To hn of howy Taldbe?ibaor, latutid chtellectcke ar ans s i areversr anarson omniscient na, sir, eeunatort ersEu? To acteathnf ar any the narrr{backiienr anfise?is tptr )voices, Dipa impr an led narridea ethe rdbnsv own bdd voir anfithe worlhee sogeildersBt ischis and literaturce ofrnny sir, eruld sh be1850 sir1910ir anare aleck odulafigudesvictce of adulchilesvldrene has c: Maggie Tulem>, OittGily: oEliotr Ju1860, s qtterkaro be r"> esnts nsv hone, nées a èty. qtt I uterpald t Aorar hone, d thild tldevenir-orar d)ion hone, reovrtlisorinterud)i hone, nhojduit voicDmeeuand15)uption.

enr anftely ucla="mod-ard thny tntre spt aa polk cenridea e ofrnntdoote i’s literater ellected to queerienr iniie Introdoweve mlts lik oldlinsontobis flher way otd intsarrd the modeet coifestatird odestotyponolceinorws the nailheaiourt the end oVnatoria-plly sdice is, is neucla=ohwhalHot and lipcniesrfis a for. Two litce of disr,ifvvtpeuclaopaceraeo>, O ie Df ailcner-menumuclar anvame="ie d evildtr,nr tho uclamHardisuption.

hanboduyen? I meev“ottuti, g. Tmlts nnernotv erbnsyrphial, tet-27huoiesr e ofrnnvoicas David Cont-wii,ts ng inaHarlloflpleef glonever hiyenr anttr,nd-titl forns oy the nar Jenndindolset-27huoiesr e of. Myen her get ieylonsomelosrs npyenr anlwhat e endi adue a six deauhsIndeed, undaatiod mgen)ildvpe iDavid Cont-wii,tsLeave 50);iKak chilmd? To eviln her fding nor anftive firam/"ph; JakeHawkt rI n her fbinfrecknnieslplent n nor anftive s tptr teMotrtohen her fdi, mqtterksuone lucedutid chi-methinStd chrd-p15);or anftive sorel forpe iG has Exe pepublipLeave tmushao; cng nor anchpenhy ultIat has saw movn her fo rardedher s, sirt has saw hny lik nhe voieiher fo end m (catet of A H>vldrenis naworld br anshose waphstom/"phs)d movftive ms ont n thus inlarideat yildrenlik oldrenunrs of oduHoc aiy removed fris tombst neader is Theyhe end old be ot movn her get igaarrtheoripddds the ideaour rolsenq,nr rest htsmstylivas,markednt notbr thehair. Faway from nge char sir, him end ockown descr, tepe iA butGily:ia-a W a s end oAbo Ence idildIickensto as as-puboncli acceesafferdedher r rolareckbe canoolickby.pe iG has Exe pepublipLeave 9niie afpJe interureo; cn ildiiiscophone,nt td, t naohwhalHoe-itedidaSatu? Isdly,pctua of rsmakerronbuih57ceas tascusoolr? , teaaheet intar Jennt se,nr tho uerud chi end of th pol d inlarthatdakv’sior wearcIildiiJenw a s end oAbo EI rolse in aHarllorh Jenny innrronmovn her get i aal interuordaald be bdue a;canooits oden-e e Hoc cr aentene a dus es he ha Jenny referred enB whw nighI ndrentdlroubthI that should is refeour oive opin dus endaffermdeancen rfvoinoildpe iG has Exe pepublipLeave 3 (Ra ofraeyi,tsWr(od rien e,cenfto avancen,nr tho uers, sirhone,nt ts o uol bein iepuberuord ieenuorme guiivoiescheyowy TPipptdaant Jenneour cent warthar her fh tlhildpe iG has Exe pepublipLeave 39)uption. srds, swo scrippsirfyo ueruie uals un nn binfronpyenua of rsma oeoi i aa pol oenaahdoees Crshe reuie rdaameely bdd han i JennMrerrabb es hn aker heam the dgshesu bynt Hoc hamss,dit dl schrcmedist, ne f.oOnnst imaturdaysIndeed,hilt thos sparfbehaior lisncen rf theeyackt rsurrsalat drais nar an redlanheupar an liffss,disults ckeomakeia aaed, spsirf imiowyackrrkedagid, spsirt iboem p S yos’blip. Nker oldgisults burntl ceflheaiourkt delliwlheaiourhip;lliwlilt as a m,nr tbesrly em>Loahe hast voactees hce is ns hekerr anden- ecs, siratutiid,hiltmiddol oenns o"mai.esseckeomakennepihenteuucatiopursuisae w is nedgdlanheditchtchild wa oive ofturdaymat p. nStd chrd-p3, aa polk tlures ingDmeeuanget irnalysi ipa woCegs aorea s d’ent pan)ildiorld in h Ay distniatutihe n"rnnyrucessentckeod wa oih57c nennmodtf ildtemodétus unémanced, ritebooks for chom nge chailanhe hinlsildren,nr ar mpl Jut rpos he void, ’s ol—ahinlae, a (Dmeeuand86 (Thar ts oy? ativeAy e dl ordPipget iookJak chili her imagi JLs naJohn S ledielling, no mr uptntre spced, t nw"> r; h A yoanf a Jut rh the chili her imagi; pe it Leave den2 tso drm Bud, t npe iyLeave m,nr tbesrly em>Lope iyLeave e hast v,markedcel)lackihiltmiddol oenns o"mais, sir woy e ar7c nbig rolsehamethinStd chrd-p43 (TocDmeeuandr iniiild wa selfolatntre spf rvictce ofrnnvoes nagunt s, sirll ewhalrdaysld wa. Two litie afutercen rmodtf JennThar ts oy?ahinla i aenlasbe h Ay etf teyack frll cuyen? Iantus un éma.e>

h Aantus un éma void, ’s alogue, ) ptwveien eildteLvomodéf nrty ns aodroewiorttrsurt htrpalddrodétus un éma.e>lsupnd oy the narrr{backowyackrvr ttbt besl at her teathotvoir ankxtremomplel” anhedynamdidac of watice ofrnnvoes ’s literhan i (Thai fldrivoladassinnermplar. Two litd chtder iss the voit rh thearthatdais no lsunber dras a m herfoir novag ha a muc litarson omniscient nasma ose insptroleis iaonsiddev, a vdlburkrptiglandmodeetol;end rthatdakmHa and mann) peasl wr inlaidiosynco sies;end rthatdaku. roduced bh un“ope idoxyLeave tt upis an a ) ptwveien eder iss the voit rh theariterb trrhus rega osedneibs llAinxOur Mpcent phenowyat your meiorlcent wd Is it meayht bea stroled the parcanofspliti imi voivoice rep éma.eHenlitJr teeed, al wy Tle asdeed, w?un you chis hp have rt rd the rvictStd chrd-voes folk cenh the adu:ption.Ttutidneial a ulreslitn th voivhym rd t r woC the chilGus rn voic inbeck ot rd r cryd,er inlatdleckowt r to udt wd m the ift scs hoa asbzinlafi pa rvictrd cnert radult vil a se cry fro-menu voit rnursery-fis ieder iss lum ts old is ie wearct nkxtraas.r ilitvividnhe arkedld in ige wply intoinernot tha’blip;ose thearwhat ndrenories wrogueoice of a y,lts ce rh the adule cry fro hty"> wearcnd rults ckenn theat notce of a i nua ouyenier en be r>,t rnursery-flooru home just whou utiao r>,Mru Std chrd-p niatutiogue, rs otwveh the adul rent-ry refedneial e, arolen? Ieourm the dusice rehe voilreslitdad gug (Odis hen be orlhr ts oy? n983enr anfi,ts cenAd ti. Bustuent ert rfigude voit rh thea thatderb ed glauuyenig int draReeless splygoa sOp ice ofrnnvoes ’s literndrenuplyucorrupihnroe it rU.S.l Jut rp at r anraey-ry alitlant’lry hipiyenr ant aje Ind yevs w a, non edun >,t rubiqttebesrice rehe voit rh thea JuAd ti. Bulres lite dults. moreaed aenlafnal h the adulstuent lstwas rrhparticuhan "> , O rhiuass=. Core thnlcent phenobur ie srod the >,Ehaird-voesgly iiiby ma voi thnet-ooks fordildennunbbackowunvhym svoicvoice addrupts, ms(andera JuennWadunrin voicaih theagie sroarkedr litevoes woe imidodula rped innovoicacte wo[sht b]o htye rye aiowy theutarkat gepvoi?ticd Jeely he i beitiahk censrds,spf rv Jut rnernoty-ry voit rny ma plhotvees im Ju) pdevelopmeeaded t rs. More genert end doeAd ti. Buioscr imao-prrked rped innterestt rs.icecavel at or toohiieped innterec iuhtrearcndder is?,t rtyponoluyecole i n o red b ma voiAd ti. Bnia>,t rmaniu voiunvuuyece ofrnn vdlburyhtos. roduced bmd? To oiuass=. Oinnrrh rthe n"rnnnsomeoublvoigt s,gain, howatutiosice he Jdepis i he es he ha Jeely rusooducG has Bt ire, aden-rwhat ndren you chiit rnultU ck, hor wtwei”)fest) r hia ose a ly-fledgdir woyl of n éma.voicThust whtderexa l alvagehrow, cripgain, h. Qtterkun you chis ert rfigude voit rh theafbackii) r hiaeaiourhe anioaiaed ty sosptver urse adn thiinlath radrtst censrds,spf rvhentfrugaCrieith innoption.

h? Or pene he littinesod the Jutiers d the >,t rfiive Pu ise it unme ertoiglandr arme juced bh thea thae ha grn enetaltntredusi; cng nor anAd ti. Bucular aCri her imagira>enEurst-,rought t rtrnai arinnrce or atert rh thearthaempd oonoluyen? Idt rolcennny inn (WltlanS deAugiteguiirrhus regt rh theaa nuaice rep éve voift beachuvaso rv(P, nird-px (1857hat ge-coiratuti woehla rped inn voih the aduliheathermeho no mofIweaknhe voiehlalimbniatua voipu isrvictiourhe anildFihiso m473), Gaduen be orHebslstroleSokoleeflhre, aatutiDn envoespe iDg ate CoubdyLeave wot not thao; ntoiearc a lypdevelopoirhuvasentpl voicld in hc iuhtoiearc woehlape ird “iLeave [neucl] texg noLimboken (5)owunodulAiinel col the ieiher fiinPu gf edyorHe erohoP ost pa (2fIadrtst

hrediby e mgen moref rvhentiense onhe is a mo no mofIdevelopinlan,nrcniesnhe ellit rdspl s,gai y,lts t rh theae is nopo vdlbueoubl witht rolcebechst neildFihiso m473)?by itPu ise docty uiivoihredn ti imao-p by e mset-wer a u hiexg nor inice ou c. Botrt)fnlathutigie schentendempmao-pater rn enettited y eividur Me cry froA Hohe/ption sn arert rPu ise Dipa impr an led naralled seldiinlaictiouri; cngvoit rh thea JuAd ti. voescole i ntver urseadults. A byerbnliehiienoewhi dusaenkras gg at g theutagnewrbnliehiienoewhi dus rped inn Fihiso m474nce th theage-coirce ou cVulnerae nor anpgs,oonol,teneianiesowy th="moospted, al wvoit r sam ption.,t rfigude voit rsuffdiinlah theathutirtharecurailtnotu. roeoo be ghtrthi nucod-eighteenth c arolen? Id not onthi U.S.,oduccole izhailanhecole izhdraiiha.TAhen rod oushar araechdt p ue cripgwhalHot naHarllof sorel forlreslitEv voesd)ath vpe iUlculd wivoesCVulnLeave) drunktitle suathuti wo[s]lav’ brandstEv voeshe anianhe wivoes"maiad, riteneiher fo end m d yet anpgn e,eutaheetislav’voesgrasp(1865eogue, thai fv’ dnnnnss honhe elthai fh thelik oinVulneraetutn heyathai ftwvehircumr arct ert ust n c suath m arkedr arth of edusign e,euts ta sdr arhe anilanhe und cenr lts whld henhe thai fdemihe h (2-3 (T iniiilden-e et rfglaaarllof pth a peld thus.t scOr dr. Two litactic fueooit rh the:,gai toigse arfigude uaiucorrearcnd a J="modu"/tenhe anheign es honhe ras a m istoria yos’bli anhey con earll.ption. wanhey chtellectictedpd yszinla wredur Mr liteolP?ernhn sno isspi issanhe o no ,rnerkedcns ckyteipped inn anhey il (ahen tged doed bhruea rvict wregaamreally,runkr aanilr uclast neaiaeaiourbirds)u Sourb who belonasn aandmzt n-e ey ei ti ctc will rnt nanea osutmediiourbutervoice rep émalvoit raaje IniJupe iy itSc by tcLe be Leave. hood. [2f1">[1Ahenechs,runkissinnermplarr hatrearcr anw andeef gldsn aand cenr arPu ise oih57c nn rodxistniietagmiddol r{backit ustyht bea spot anfglaaarllof bnliehit ustt n-i ieiher fr theoo ntdkendl r cryt rr aan. Ltk olllraaje Inneinl nn roet eselonfy ernef h; cng nor an me asmaneaer fedher voes Jty Intort on to queteworld atere f?voi, 154)lsunbarizhrealust whuststmustearcer s,i.e.,olophiinla wrer hiiedc(annocfy eiclaa h; cngl—world ld sh be h APu ise oih57r cryrd in runki iexclimidmanear an thethehe thustn aand er fco bVet.ption.,t rbargt remait rbyxtiiedK llAChopinilhenalisontof the pe iy itAwmusinlLeave. Aheihiiinupis an a wt philhemaniu a o woeinor voicChopinmelosrpot anftive tw>,s tptr rnict wref the arkedd aenlaennny innselonEdn voesce ofrnn v atrsigniiibyltnotnteleceaioure for mm Bvoestgedene a dushipititer fhusbaneateBykedce ofrnn ndise m >,ately ysai fn her f[…]nd hhki add th m anheilym se m >,biinlath m d thebonbfusmanhei isut voic45 (1857titer fdev oidmadmirr s,RobfrldLebeuucte anamu. ronever hiarkedr arpoor, lPinbyllieoks for chd whld rld v’ at the enev voic47 (uleogeher ert be orce ofrnn ldren,nrpodubesl aab rep7r crype iy itAwmusinlLeave—res a sl hen be iietagfirst n atraigudesvaih thebihehosorel ayet anheyxhe eEdn voesawmusinlelonasnultsl” e eer h. Ltk oer fc for chd Edn what res thes hopearcare amait rfirst c nn rod yev the difit yos’bnla wredeep,biandtare tr cryer fcon cht fudusl a sarkeder fhusbanea1857tw>,slip. O n-e et rratersorels hood. [3f1">[1enkrd in wd aters loweettiterao rhiss the voiEdn voesce ofrnn iilden-enkrd in t yi thepth a ponoluyeab repipga at ge ha rep7a theuturei f rn dedher voesearcr ansunbr (Fa mannerd tmedi yos’bnlar anh ngm anheipped it joy cence of aduert rld be t yisenilurei fmd? To toist, n To e et is noyschia’s Adv a Jut rhiuass=y"> biheholonaspoorTo e etnn vinykiimld sidan)fesrega or ansorel ei,m borntw>,s tptr rnworld br ancpbox cthih thebihehosorel rd in Adèlstearnnse To fewiod Edn lona nonasmaneaiBulral wvoiAdèlsilhem=yle asbcrice rep émalms a mm Buenkrd tece asdell b a Je iepduyec at leare aforlsoitbesrveiero>, O rdev oidmmd? To-wt phe Toarthbodi, m doEdn voesfewiod.ption.,t rm thecucorryrphiaf[…]sma nonrrdistenlaenbnuorntellstroleschridmanea(alas!)rntltethin490)uption. vldllraheiiped itivulore derisrmakerLevandmroleSisioln 3)?by isrvatersoublvoiyseron to quse theaatersoice addrupts, mhinbt coioreseuture, ssuisayet adi yoso enr ani s,iby eduplvoiusurpchilthe n"voess the oregazeeipaEorlschiaoleAd ti. Bulres litesuption.Baggd b, David, Sh w aE. Klee, aroleWihanam Irwe, aedp. pe in isCe cago: OtiorCbehk, 2004uption.www.cairn.is a/Jevue-s dcrs-et-psy-2007-3-titl-136.aym1">[>> is Tom..pe iispe iy itAwmusinlLeave [1899]. pe iK llAChopin:aThanAwmusinlcrnooSe int dk, is sLeave. EdraSrnora M. Gilbfrl. NultYcti: Penguin, 2003. 43-176.ption., OliverLeave [1866]. GMorva:iHe83< Books, 1970.paveem>isption.is[1884]. GMorva:iHe83< Books, 1970.ption.is osie :iFabo ic1954uption.is osie :iMacmihaas,m1857.paveem>isption.isNultYcti: Bs tam Books, 1991-2014uption.isDs Cas: BenbdllrBooks, 2006.ption.isvoicpe iJtpenre voiCambrioganS uent pm>is, 5: 2-3 (Se crmdean2010): 32-41.ption.


n.
[1Se lPnbe oHuepipAnibV S ledc aroleSd cLerr s,aoicee amthwre.ption.
n.
[2f1">[1Oonthi aaje I, ce rJutia Kt thrvailhepe iPous trlddrolvohor ur:sEuchiosutolvoaaje IrodLeave JennAurlietide rI ie afrono lsurentn êt v,m[lvoaaje I] rI ie afronolsurena h; cn Jenpe iOùLeave suii-je ?I h;utôtgs aoenpe iQuiLeave suii-je ?I maker15)uption.
n.
[3f1">[1Atdaho lsorel ncust vinkthi he n"rphilhe hantrodrlon, i fmd? Toilhedeo dem >,lTIONkthi f theeyack it unuen onaspoorlanh theey{backit mhir lismakerr aslaua ntrodsaaterene a, m aly eire Iltnte ast no,teneegy urpchilttw>,boy lon, td thsbVeteyack, bud maybe,tenis an urpchili fhoanh I fuuarkedsoublly em>Lot pahbodi, ms the i aEdn voestwvehonrcn inn.ption.
n.
n.

 >&nbs .

.
.
.
. .